Evolving DISE: Strengthening of EMIS in India
successful implementation of any educational programme, effective
monitoring, coupled with efficient information system, is essential. While
monitoring framework under SSA is developed separately, concerted efforts
have been made towards strengthening of Educational Management Information
System (EMIS) in India.
Indian education system
is one of the largest education systems in the World; it caters to the
needs of more than 1,028 million people. Keeping in view its size, the
information system has the following limitations: (i) multiple data
collection agencies; (ii) multiple directorates involved in data
collection and lack of coordination among them; (iii) lack of
understanding of the concept and definitions of educational statistics;
(iv) lack of adequate staff at different levels; (v) lack of qualified and
trained staff, specially at the lower levels; (vi) problems in
distribution and collection of data-capture formats; (vii) lack of
district-specific time series data; (viii) time-lag in data; (ix)
reliability of education data; (x) data gaps; (xi) lack of equipments
(computers) at lower levels; (xii) creation of new districts and changes
in boundaries of the existing districts; (xiii) poor dissemination and
utilization of data; and (xiv) lack of accountability at all levels.
Notwithstanding the above
limitations, the school statistics form the basis of planning, monitoring
and evaluation of various aspects of education, in general, and primary
and elementary education, in particular.
At the time of initiating
District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) in 1994, it was felt that a
sound information system is essential for successful monitoring and
implementation of the programme. It was expressed that DPEP, with a focus
on decentralized planning, required up-to-date and reliable school level
information soon after it was collected. The MHRD in 1994, as a part of
the DPEP national endeavour, decided to design and develop a school based
computerized information system, the main responsibility for which was
entrusted to National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration
(NIEPA), New Delhi.
In this background, a
pilot project for revitalization of educational statistics in India was
initiated at NIEPA during 1995 with financial assistance from UNICEF. The
project was to examine issues related to identification of data needs,
processes and procedures for data collection, developing a framework for
data flows and computerization, and facilitating the use of educational
indicators in planning, management, monitoring and evaluation.
In tune with the spirit
of the DPEP, district was selected as a nodal point for collection,
computerization, analysis and use of school level data.
The first version (dbase)
of the software, named as ‘District Information System for Education?(DISE)
was released by NIEPA during the middle of 1995. The district level
professionals were assisted and trained in the establishment of EMIS
units. The first major review of the DISE software was undertaken during
1997- 98 (PowerBuilder/SQL Anywhere). The software was later redesigned
in 2001 in the light of requirements of the SSA (PowerBuilder/Oracle). Not
only the coverage of DISE was extended to non-DPEP states but it was also
extended from primary to the entire elementary level of education. DISE is
under revision and the revised version will have the following additional
Schools by Type
of Boundary Wall,
Source of Drinking Water
Teachers and Students and Availability of Kitchen Shed in the School
Enrolment by Minority
Children by Multiple Disabilities
Results of SC and ST Students etc.
Efforts are being made to
develop DISE as a complete user friendly menu-driven software. Some of
the features that are being incorporated in the modified software are:
flexibility will be provided to users to add ‘n?number of state and
district-specific supplementary variables in the Data-Capture Format and
generate reports at all desired levels;
To improve the consistency of
data, efforts are being made to highlight schools that reported
Export data to
popular formats such as Excel, Text etc. will be made available;
Users will be able to make
data entry at Block level and then merge the data into single district
level database by using the new improved DISE2001 Export Utility etc.
2001: Main Features
main features of DISE 2001 are briefly presented below:
covers eight years of schooling in all primary, upper primary and
primary/upper primary sections of the secondary and higher secondary
The concept and
definitions of educational variables involved therein have been
standardized at the national level and are uniformally followed by all
districts and states.
Manual aggregation of data at
different levels is completely replaced by computerized data entry and
report generation system.
time-series data at school, village, cluster, block and district levels.
defines core data on school location, management, rural urban,
enrolment, buildings, equipment, teachers, incentives, medium of
instruction, children with disabilities, examination results and student
Detailed data on individual
teachers, para-teachers and community teachers and their profile,
including data on in-service training received, is collected and made
the chances of data manipulation at various levels. The school remains
responsible for correctness of the data supplied. States need to ensure
correctness of the data supplied on five per cent sample basis.
states/districts have flexibility of adding supplementary variables
depending upon their specific requirements on year-to-year basis. No
additional software for computerization and analysis of state/district
specific data is required.
states/districts can develop their own large database using ‘designer?
module and integrate a variety of school/cluster/block level data with
it. The software handles multiple databases at various levels and
provides tools of data analysis and presentation.
A large number
of standardized reports on school related variables and performance
indicators aggregated at the cluster, block and district levels, are
generated by the software.
two-way flow of information. School summary report for each school is
generated for sharing with the school and members of Village Education
It provides an
easy-to-use dynamic graphics facility to enhance the presentation of
various types of graphs and data.
multi-user and modular system of software design for better management
and security of databases.
It responds to
pre-defined queries on standard aspects, like school list, list of
villages without primary and upper primary schools, single-teacher
schools, schools without buildings, schools with high PTR, etc.
It helps user
defined dynamic query on hundreds of variables.
provides facilities for basic statistical analysis, including generation
of new variables and their analysis.
The reports can
be shared across a large number of users without full software
Data can be
exported to many other formats for statistical and other analyses by
Major Outcomes of DISE Efforts
the concerted efforts, MIS Unit is now operational both at the district
and state levels and is equipped with necessary hardware and software.
The DISE software is now
operational in 581 districts in 29 States & UTs of the country and is
providing vital information for policy formulation and preparation of
district elementary education plans.
DISE has completely eliminated
time-lag in educational statistics. At the national level, time-lag in
educational data is reduced to less than one year from the earlier 7-8
years. Gap between collection and dissemination of data stands reduced
dramatically. Time-lag within the state is reduced to few months.
DISE has also
eliminated data gaps as comprehensive information is now available on
all aspects of universal elementary education across the country.
It is for the
first time that a time-series data is made available at the school
level. The trend analysis of DISE data helps in identifying major block
and district specific issues for being used in developing perspective
and annual plans.
For the first time, a District
Report Card on elementary education is being released annually as part
of DISE dissemination activities, which contains time-series and
cross-sectional data on more than four hundred variables at the district
level. State Report Cards have also been developed and are being
disseminated for the last four years. The Analytical Report containing
detailed analysis of DISE data is also being published annually. Efforts
will be made to develop Country Report Card once all the States & UTs
get covered under DISE.
website of DISE (http://dpepmis.org) has been developed and is being
updated frequently. District Report Cards and raw data in case of each
of the district covered under DISE are uploaded. Data-Capture Formats,
software patches etc. are also made available to users. Analytical
Reports are also made available on the Internet. Efforts are being made
to make available School Report Cards in case of all one million plus
schools through the internet.
As an online help to users,
DISE group of users is formed on the Internet, which is very active.
Users post problems of common interest to group for their solutions.
decided to support studies based on the DISE data. At the international
level, to create awareness about DISE and type of data it generates,
presentations were recently made at the Oxford and Cambridge
Universities (UK). Through concerted efforts, it is hoped that demand
for DISE data will be generated in years that follow.
DISE: Coverage & Type of Data
604 districts across 35 States and UTs have been covered under DISE during 2005-06.
Information on the following key variables
have been made available over a period of time at school, cluster, block,
district, state and National levels.
Data on number
of blocks, CRC’s, villages and schools in case of all the States.
Key data on
elementary education in terms of the number of schools, enrolment, and
teachers, classified by school category and school management (also in
respect of a few variables in case of rural/urban areas).
level-wise enrolment in each State.
results for the previous academic session for the terminal classes at
primary and upper primary levels of education.
Classrooms, categorized into
good condition, requiring minor and major repairs by school category.
schools by category and by type of buildings.
Sex-wise enrolment of children
with disabilities at primary and upper primary levels.
Gender and caste distribution
of regular and para-teachers and the proportion of teachers undergoing
in-service teacher training during the pervious year.
Distribution of regular and
para-teachers by educational and professional qualifications and by
Enrolment by medium of
instruction and by school category.
Sex-wise number of students
benefited by various incentive schemes at primary and upper primary
Performance indicators in
terms of school category; ratio of primary to upper primary
schools/sections; enrolment distribution: total, Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes, percentage female enrolment; gender-parity index;
classrooms; single-teacher schools; schools with attached pre-primary
classes; percentage of under-age & over-age children in primary and
upper primary classes; apparent survival rate (up to Grade V), dropout
rate, retention rate, and transition rate from primary to upper primary
indicators according to category of schools, teacher-pupil ratio;
availability of female teachers; schools without female teacher;
blackboard and building; percentage schools received and utilized school
development and TLM grant; students classroom ratio; availability of
drinking water, common toilet and girl’s toilet in school, etc.